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2. Behavioral Evolution

Among the most cited series of experiments in social and evolutionary psychology are those conducted by Clark and Hatfield (, ). In these studies, college students (see Table 2 and Figure 2). We see, then, that our prototype study does indeed replicate the critically important findings of the classic studies. 1 Jun Which of these factors prove to be most important depends on culture, personality , gender, and social context. (pp. 3– 4). Some empirical studies of hookup behavior have also advocated multifactorial approaches (Eshbaugh & Gute, ; Garcia & Reiber, ). Evolutionary and social models often. 20 Sep according to the study published this month in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior. Previous research has examined the qualities that make faces and bodies attractive, such as symmetry and waist-to-hip ratio. But this is the first study to experimentally analyze the relative importance of faces and.

Although scholarly research on the hookup phenomenon has begun to emerge, two fundamental questions remain unanswered: How common are hookups?

The current research addressed these two important questions. Confidence in prior estimates of the prevalence of hookups is undermined by the use of imprecise definitions of hookup partnerships and behaviors. Hookup behaviors have also not been defined precisely e. Using investigator-generated definitions for hookup does not resolve this methodological challenge because students may disregard this definition and answer questions with their own personal understanding of the term.

Therefore, to address these concerns in the current study, we did not use the term hookup when assessing prevalence. Instead, we defined a casual partner in such a manner that captured the essence of hooking up cf.

The ambiguity inherent in the term affords privacy but obscures a precise understanding of the phenomenon. Therefore, the other purpose of this study was to explore the defining characteristics of hookups as reported by college women. We investigated eight dimensions of hookups that have either not been well-researched or have been subject to conflicting results: At study entry, participants also reported an average of 2.

All participants lived in on-campus residence halls during their first semester and were not yet eligible to join sororities. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board. After providing written informed consent, students completed two surveys. The surveys were linked using a non-traceable code. Upon completion, participants received course credit. In the first section of the survey, we requested here about sociodemographic characteristics i.

Next, we assessed the prevalence of hookups. Here, they were asked: Participants indicated g what specific sexual behaviors occurred, and whether a condom was used if h oral sex or i vaginal or anal sex occurred. For all questions, women had the option to indicate that they had never hooked up. Participants indicated e what specific sexual activities occurred and whether a condom click here used if f oral sex or g vaginal How Is Relative Hookup Important To The Study Of Evolution anal sex occurred.

For all questions, women had the option to indicate that they had not engaged in physical interaction with a romantic relationship partner. Table 1 displays the prevalence rates of seven sexual hookup behaviors as well as the mean and median number of hookup partners for three time intervals: Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique hookup events were described the number of hookups exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at T1 and T2. Forty-four percent reported that their most recent hookup was not the first time they had hooked up with that particular partner.

Participants reported consuming an average of 3.

How Is Relative Hookup Important To The Study Of Evolution

Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique romantic events were described the number of events exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at T1 and T2. Participants reported consuming an average of 0. Hookups and romantic interactions were compared using data from the 99 participants who reported on both a hookup and a romantic event.

The interspersed non-coding parts, which are not translated, are called introns; the coding parts are called exons. Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Good looks seem to be the sine qua non of a pick-up. A member of the phylum Porifera, marine and freshwater invertebrates that live permanently attached to rocks or other surfaces. A cell biologist and professor of biology at Brown University.

Percentages reported in this section refer to only these 99 participants. We applied a Bonferroni correction to alpha of. Alcohol use was more common prior to hookups than prior to romantic interactions. Touching breasts, touching genitals outside of clothing, touching genitals underneath clothing, oral sex, and vaginal sex occurred more often during romantic interactions than during hookups.

Among both hookups and romantic interactions in which oral sex learn more here, no participants reported condom use. This study advances knowledge regarding the behavioral epidemiology of hookups by a estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors in the hookup context and b providing more detailed information about the context and behavioral topography of hookups.

We assessed specific sexual behaviors in order to obtain precise hookup prevalence rates. Knowing the percentage of late adolescents and young emerging adults who engage in penetrative sex during hookups affords a better understanding of the public health implications of the hookup culture.

Participants provided ample details regarding their experience before, during, and after hookups, and several key findings emerged.

Hookup or commitment? Study finds relationship intentions influence women's memory of men

The How Is Relative Hookup Important To The Study Of Evolution between alcohol use and hooking up increases the risk for sexual victimization during these encounters Abbey, ; Click et al. Second, most women hooked up with someone they knew well, such as a friend or ex-boyfriend. Thus, conceptualizing a hookup as an interaction between strangers or brief acquaintances may miss many hookups.

Third, students use the term hookup to refer to a wide range of behaviors. Using the term hookup in research is problematic if some believe it to mean having vaginal sex but others believe it to be any intimate behavior e. Accordingly, researchers need to use specific behaviors when asking about hookup experiences cf. These findings suggest a need for continued efforts to promote condom use among sexually active young people.

The comparison of check this out interactions with hookups also yielded several interesting findings. First, participants reported consuming alcohol more often and in greater amounts prior to hookups than prior to romantic interactions.

These data reveal that alcohol plays a pivotal role in the hookup culture, not simply in general sexual activity among college students. Second, hookups were less likely than romantic interactions to involve touching of the breasts and genitals, oral sex, and vaginal sex. This pattern might be expected given that hookup partners are not involved in any kind of committed relationship and may therefore be less likely to assume that such behaviors are appropriate or welcome by their partner.

Third, women reported enjoying romantic interactions more, and regretting them less, than hookups. The preference for sexual interaction with a romantic partner over a hookup partner may stem from physical or psychological reasons.

For example, a long-term partner may be more likely than a new hookup partner to be able to please them sexually; indeed, women are more likely to report orgasms from romantic interactions than hookups England et al. Enjoyment and regret of the interactions may also be affected by psychological processes.

For instance, perhaps females enjoy romantic interactions more than hookups because they do not have to worry about pejorative labels or developing a negative reputation Bogle, The limitations of this research should be acknowledged.

First, our sample of primarily heterosexual Caucasian females may limit the generalizability of the results.

Gender Differences in Receptivity to Sexual Offers: A New Research Prototype

We focused on females because of their greater risk for negative consequences of hookups, but future research more info sample males; ethnic minority students; and gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Members of fraternities and sororities may be of particular interest because they tend to have more sexual partners and to have sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs more often than independent non-fraternity- or sorority-affiliated students cf.

A second limitation of the study is its atheoretical nature. We developed our research questions after a review of the empirical literature on hooking up; we attempted to fill in gaps in the knowledge base and resolve inconsistencies or debatable points. Future research, guided by psychosocial theory, can extend the results of this empirical investigation. Third, the prevalence estimates we obtained reflect the assessment methods we used.

The ambiguity inherent in the term hookup makes it difficult to assess its prevalence.

The higher the numbers, the more certain people were that they would agree with the request. An allele A is dominant if the phenotype of the heterozygote Aa is the same as the homozygote AA. While Lyell initially opposed the idea of evolution, he came to accept it after Darwin published On the Origin of Species. Cell size varies, but most cells are microscopic. The evolution of costly mate preferences:

However, the methods we employed enabled a more accurate measurement of hookup prevalence relative to prior studies. Moreover, in our assessment of hookup characteristics, we asked participants to self-label hookups so we did not limit our study to only those situations that we understood to be hookups. Fourth, the study design does not permit causal inferences or exploration of the health consequences of hooking up.

How Is Relative Hookup Important To The Study Of Evolution

Longitudinal research might examine physical and mental health consequences of hooking up cf. Moreover, the prevalence of hooking up suggests that it confers benefits to young people so research could examine whether positive outcomes accrue from this behavior e. These results suggest that a majority of female students engage in sexual hookups during high How Is Relative Hookup Important To The Study Of Evolution and their first semester of college.

Thus, recent reports describing a new hookup culture among students may be accurate. This study increases understanding of the hookup experience with regard to partner types, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, condom use, and emotional reactions.

The defining characteristic of a hookup seems to be the lack of mutually understood romantic commitment rather than a particular relationship or pattern of interaction. Less clear, and worthy of research, are the implications of hookups for health.

Research exploring these outcomes is needed before we can draw conclusions about the effects of this increasingly prevalent sexual behavior pattern. The authors would like to thank Hillary L. Bishop for her help with data collection and data entry. J Sex Marital Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC January 1. Center for Health and Behavior, Syracuse University. Copyright notice and Disclaimer. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Prevalence Confidence in prior estimates of the prevalence of hookups is undermined by the use of imprecise definitions of hookup partnerships and behaviors. Procedures All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board. Survey Materials In the first section of the survey, we requested information about sociodemographic characteristics i. Results Prevalence Table How Is Relative Hookup Important To The Study Of Evolution displays the prevalence rates of seven sexual hookup behaviors as well as the mean and median number of hookup partners for three time intervals: Hookup Characteristics Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique hookup events were described the number of hookups exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at See more and T2.

Alcohol and drug use Participants reported consuming an average of 3. Romantic Interactions Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique romantic events were described the number of events exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at T1 and T2.

Alcohol and drug use Participants reported consuming an average of 0. Comparing Hookups and Romantic Interactions Hookups and romantic interactions were compared using data from the 99 participants who reported on both a hookup and a romantic event. Alcohol and drug use Alcohol use was more common prior to hookups than prior to romantic interactions. Sexual behavior Touching breasts, touching genitals outside of clothing, touching genitals underneath clothing, oral sex, and vaginal sex more info more often during romantic interactions than during hookups.

Discussion This study advances knowledge regarding the behavioral epidemiology of hookups by a estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors in the hookup context and b providing more detailed information about the context and behavioral topography of hookups. Prevalence We assessed specific sexual behaviors in order to obtain precise hookup prevalence rates.

Hookup Characteristics Participants provided ample details regarding their experience before, during, and after hookups, and several key findings emerged.

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Limitations and Future Directions The limitations of this research should be acknowledged.