Louis XIV - The Sun King
28 Dec Louis XIV, byname Louis the Great, Louis the Grand Monarch, or the Sun King, French Louis Le Grand, Louis Le Grand Monarque, or Le Roi Soleil, (born September 5, , Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died September 1, , Versailles, France), king of France (–) who ruled his country. Louis was born on 5 September at St Germain-en-Laye. He became king at the age of four on the death of his father, Louis XIII. While Louis was a child, his mother, Anne of Austria, served as regent, assisted by Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin. Louis's early years were marked by a series of rebellions. 2 Jun Louis XIV of France, king of kings. Born on September 5, , Louis was christened Louis-Dieudonné, meaning 'gift of God' and became king at the age of four upon the death of his father, Louis XIII (). He reigned for 72 years and days until his death on September 1, , longer than that.
Step into the excitement and chaos of the French Revolution as told by musician and artist Jeffrey Lewis. In that time, he transformed the monarchy, ushered in a golden age of art and literature, presided over a dazzling royal court at Versailles, annexed key territories and established his Where Was King Louis Xiv Born as the dominant European power.
When the king died on May 14,4-year-old Louis inherited the crown of a fractured, unstable and nearly insolvent France. Beginning intheir discontent erupted into a civil war known as the Fronde, which forced the royal family to flee Paris and instilled a lifelong fear Where Was King Louis Xiv Born rebellion in the young king.
A diplomatic necessity more than anything else, the union produced six children, of whom only one, Louissurvived to adulthood. He viewed himself as the direct representative of God, endowed with a divine right to wield the absolute power of the monarchy. Immediately after assuming control of the government, Louis worked tirelessly to centralize and tighten control of France and its overseas colonies. His finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbertimplemented reforms that sharply reduced the deficit and fostered the growth of industry, while his war minister, the Marquis de Please click for sourceexpanded and reorganized the French army.
Louis also managed to pacify and disempower the historically rebellious nobles, who had fomented no less than 11 civil wars in four decades, by luring them to his court and habituating them to the opulent lifestyle there. A hard-working and meticulous ruler who oversaw his programs down to the last detail, Louis XIV nevertheless appreciated art, literature, music, theater and sports.
On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy. His last surviving son, the Dauphin, died in The taille was reduced to 42 million in and 35 million in ; finally the revenue from indirect taxation progressed from 26 million to 55 million. Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Weekand special ceremonies. Inthe devoutly Catholic king revoked the Edict of Nantes, issued by his grandfather Henry IV inwhich had granted freedom of worship and other rights to French Protestants known as Huguenots.
Most famously, he transformed a royal hunting lodge in Versailles, a village 25 miles southwest of the capital, into one of the largest palaces in the world, officially moving his court and government there in It was against this awe-inspiring backdrop that Louis tamed the nobility and impressed foreign dignitaries, using entertainment, ceremony and a highly codified system of etiquette to assert his supremacy.
Under pressure from the English, Swedish and especially the Dutch, France retreated and returned the region to Spain, gaining only some frontier towns in Flanders. The ensuing war, fought on both hemispheres, lasted from to ; France emerged with most of its territory intact but its resources severely strained.
The long conflict plunged a famine-ridden France into massive debt, turning public opinion against the crown. Inthe devoutly Catholic king revoked the Edict of Nantes, issued by his grandfather Henry IV inwhich had granted freedom of worship and other rights to French Protestants known as Huguenots.
9 Things You May Not Know About Louis XIV
With the Edict of Fontainebleau, Louis ordered the destruction of Protestant churches, the closure of Protestant schools and the expulsion of Protestant clergy. Protestants would be barred from assembling and their marriages would be deemed invalid. Baptism and education in the Catholic faith would be required of all children. Roughly 1 million Huguenots lived in France at the time, and many were artisans or other types of skilled workers.
Although emigration of Protestants was explicitly forbidden by the Edict of Fontainebleau, scores Where Was King Louis Xiv Born people—estimates range fromto ,—fled in the decades that followed, settling in England, Switzerland, Germany and the American colonies, among other places.
His reign had lasted 72 years, longer see more that of any other known European monarch, and left an indelible mark on the culture, history and destiny of France. His 5-year-old grandson succeeded him as Louis XV.
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Article Videos Speeches Shop. Bastille Day Step into the excitement and chaos of the French Revolution as told by musician and artist Jeffrey Lewis. Play video Coroner's Report: Robespierre and the Reign of Terror 4min.
BBC The King Who Invented Ballet
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Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy. This was a step toward equality before the law and toward sound public finance, but so many concessions and exemptions were won by nobles and bourgeois that the reform lost much of its value. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.
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